Understanding of Mass Communication

Understanding of Mass Communication
In everyday life, humans need a medium to exchange information. This method is known as communication. Through communication, a person can deliver a news, exchange information, submit an idea or ideas, or socialize with others (Mass communication theories journals). Communication can occur between one person with another person, communication between two or more people, a person to an organization or community, even communication directed directly to the wider community. The types of communication are very diverse. Communication is not only done face to face, but now it can be done through digital media or online. Communication can be done through intermediaries of words and sentences, symbols, signs, and behavior. This communication itself can be expressed in various forms of media, such as words, pictures, numbers, writing, and even video.

An information can be quickly conveyed to the wider community through a media called mass media. Mass media is a channel or place that is used as a means of mass communication processes. The types of mass media also vary, the first is printed mass media (printed media), namely newspapers, newspapers, magazines, tabloids, and so forth. Then the second is the type of electronic mass media (electronic media), such as radio, television, and film. And the third is online media (digital media), namely through programs or channels such as blogs, websites, and other social networking applications. The advantage of disseminating information through mass media is its superiority in delivering the same information to the general public in relatively simultaneous time.

Mass communication can also be referred to as mass media communication. Therefore, mass communication clearly means a way of communicating or delivering information that is done through mass media (communicating with media). The hallmark of mass communication is the type of communication aimed at the public or the wider community through mass media intermediaries. If you hear the word mass, then you can interpret it in terms of the words plural, massive, and in very large numbers. The most common definition of mass communication is the same way of delivering messages, to a large number of people, and at the same time through the mass media. Mass communication can be done through all existing mass media, namely print media, electronic media, and online media. There are no media restrictions in the use of mass communication.

A message delivered to one person, will have a different effect if the message is delivered directly to many people at the same time. Apart from the benefits of time and energy, mass communication has a positive impact on other sizable benefits. Mass communication is even able to move a mass or a large number of people and communities to do something that is expected through a message. Mass communication is a type of social force that is able to direct the public and media organizations to achieve a predetermined goal, for example social goals.

Mass communication is able to spread the message publicly almost simultaneously even in just one time delivery of information. This mass communication is conveyed openly to heterogeneous communities whose reach is relatively larger. Mass communication acts as an effective way to convey information between those who want to convey information, and those who want to be given information. Both communication for individuals or individuals, group communication, and its main function as communication for the wider community.

There are several figures or experts who express their opinions on the definition of mass communication. One of them is Charles R. Wright. In Wright's opinion, mass communication can be distinguished according to its patterns, this is because mass communication has unique characteristics namely:

Aimed at the wider heterogeneous, anonymous and broad reach community
The information submitted is open
Information submitted is received simultaneously at more or less the same relative and is only temporary for some mass media (electronic media)
Communicators as parties who convey information, usually engaged in an organization that has a high position and requires a large enough cost
According to Wright, mass communication can function as surveillance or an activity to correlate and combine an event with facts so that conclusions can be drawn. In addition to these important functions, Wright also believes that mass communication can be useful as a medium of entertainment.
The second opinion regarding the definition of mass communication is conveyed by John R. Bittner (1980: 10). Bittner argues that, "Mass communication is messages communicated through a mass medium to a large number of people". Mass communication is a message that is conveyed or communicated through mass media to most people.

Mass communication has several characteristics. The characteristics of mass communication can be divided into 4 main signs of mass communication. The four main signs of the characteristics of mass communication were conveyed by an expert, Suprapto. The characteristics according to Suprapto, 2006: 13 about the four main signs are as follows:

1. Mass communication has a communicative nature
This is because the target of mass communication is a relatively large community and has a heterogeneous and anonymous nature. This society cannot be measured by how many people there are, how educational background, age, religion, ethnicity, type of work, etc. The thing that can make all these differences merge is the same interests and interests.

2. Mass communication has a fast and simultaneous nature
The delivery of messages simultaneously is done simultaneously by the communicator to the communicant who has a large number. If delivered simultaneously, the communicant's attention will focus on the message conveyed by the communicator. The nature of fast message delivery will enable the message to be conveyed in a relatively short time.

3. Mass communication has a public nature
It is clear that the message to be conveyed is addressed to the wider community, not to certain groups. So the contents of the message delivered must be more general. Because it includes a general and universal environment.

Protection of Children and Women Starting from the Nearby Environment

Protection of Children and Women Starting from the Nearby Environment
Violence against children and women until this moment is still not complete. Like an iceberg, violence that is not revealed and does not dare to be revealed still occurs around us. It could be that it was not revealed or the surrounding environment was less concerned and sensitive to the case (Security Challenges of Girl Child Education Journals). Nowadays, urban life also makes a person or a group of people as individualistic human beings makes the level of concern between people decreases. In fact, not a few are more concerned with problems outside the environment than the environment around them.

Remember the Angeline case in 2020? The boy who died for his own foster mother in Bali. According to neighbors and teachers, the 8-year-old girl looks odd. Injuries to the body, worn clothing and an untidy appearance have been seen, but the teacher is still not sensitive to these markings. They are aware, but they are not responsive. Not only that, there are several cases of violence against children and women that should be overcome if the community and the environment are aware and caring.

Record of cases of child abuse, both physical and sexual according to the National Commission for Child Protection, as many as 350 cases out of about 2046 cases in 2015 were cases of child abuse. This can indicate that protection for children is still lacking. The primary protection of a child should be given by those closest to him, such as parents, grandparents, brothers and sisters or neighbors. However, when finding a child victim of violence turns out to be by the family or the closest person itself, then the local residents or people around the child's neighborhood or school have the right to protect the child.

First aid for victims of violence, especially for children and women does not always have to be an obligation of the authorities. People around can also help victims of violence, by being good listeners and providers of protection and can work together to help victims free from violence, before finally helping them to professionals who can help handle their cases. Everyone can help to help the victim. The people around the victim can be family, friends who he really believes in, teachers, elder people, and neighbors themselves.

There are several things that can be done to help prevent or help victims of violence that occur around us, including:

Understand and get to know the surrounding environment
Knowing and understanding the environment around it is indeed important. Getting acquainted with people who are in the neighborhood, school or work environment is useful for themselves and others. The reason is simple, because one time that will help us in an emergency is the nearest neighbor. Vice versa. So, getting to know neighbors or people in the immediate environment can cause sensitivity and concern for others.

Recognize signs of children or women experiencing violence
To uncover what is not revealed, is an appropriate term to explore and recognize the signs of victims of violence. There are things that need to be known, that not all children who experience violence can easily tell stories about what they experienced, both physical and sexual violence. There are two common factors that cause victims to not be able to express their violence easily (especially cases of sexual violence), namely: they still do not understand what sexual violence is and there is a threat from the perpetrators. As people who are in the immediate environment of the victim, we can observe and recognize strange or unusual things and changes that occur in the child, both physically and psychologically. If there is something unnatural, there is no need to be reluctant to help the child. As happened in the Angeline case, the teacher realized that there was a strange change in the child but the teacher just let it go and did nothing. In fact, all can be responded to quickly to prevent more fatal things.

No need to hesitate in helping victims of violence
Child violence, female violence and violence against domestic workers, including domestic violence. Usually, when finding someone suspected of being the perpetrator or seeing firsthand the perpetrators committed against victims of violence in the household, sometimes the people around him choose to avoid and not interfere because they feel there is no authority to help the victim. In fact, improper actions or behaviors that harm others until there are victims are the responsibility of all of us. As the closest person, there is no need to be afraid to report these actions to the authorities, both RT / RW, police and other legal assistance. No need to be afraid as a reporter or witness, according to Law no. 13 of 2006 concerning the protection of witnesses and victims explained that each witness has the right to legal protection.

Crisis Center Service Referral
To help protect children who are victims of violence and get them out of trauma, we do need help from counselors and psychologists. Integrated crisis services or Crisis Centers for children and women are places that can provide further treatment.

Definition of Public Sector Accounting and Its Purpose

Definition of Public Sector Accounting and Its Purpose
Public Sector Accounting is a process for collecting, recording, classifying, analyzing and making financial transaction reports for a public organization that provides financial information for those who need it for use when making a decision (References from International Public Sector Accounting Standard).

The Purpose of Public Sector Accounting
Management Control, the aim is to provide information needed to manage an organization quickly, precisely, efficiently and economically for the operation and use of resources entrusted / budgeted for an organization.
Accountability, this goal is almost the same as management control, which is to provide useful information for public sector managers who are used to report the implementation of the responsibilities of resources / fields / divisions under their authority. It also reports activities to the public on government operations and the use of public funds / budgets.

Nature and Characteristics of Public Sector Accounting
Public sector accounting is clearly different from private sector accounting. The striking thing is on the part of the agencies that use it. The public sector is usually associated with regional government organizations. In general, the following components affect public sector organizations.

Value for money
Over time, new demands began to emerge so that a public sector organization would consider value for money in carrying out its duties. Value for money is a public sector management concept based on 3 elements, namely:
Economy, input income with a certain quantity and quality at the lowest price
Efficiency, achieving maximum output with a certain number of inputs / using the lowest input to get a certain number of outputs.
Effectiveness, level of achievement of program results that have been announced previously.
These 3 things are the points of value for money, but there are some parties who add 2 things to the points of value for money, namely justice and equity.
Justice refers to the existence of social opportunities that are not different (the same) to get quality public services and facilities and the welfare of the economic sector. While equity is a public budget allocation that is not focused on just one organization.

Benefits of Implementing Value for Money
Value for money certainly has several benefits, in general the benefits are as follows:
Improve the quality of public sector services
Increasing the effectiveness of public services
Lower costs for public services.
Equation of the Public Sector and the Private Sector
The public and private sectors are both an integral part of an economic system in a particular country and use the same resources in achieving the goals set.
Both have the same problems, such as scarcity of resources, effective efficiency of funds, etc.
Similarities in terms of management control such as financial management.
Use accurate data and information to help make strategic decisions.
Maybe that's just a review of public sector accounting that we can present. Hopefully this short article can provide enough insight to you.

What is Public Sector Accounting?
The Public Sector will teach an accounting science within the scope of public sector organizations. The intended public sector includes, for example, central and regional government organizations, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), hospitals, and education. Of course the process of collecting, recording, classifying and analyzing financial transaction reports for public sector organizations is different from what is done in the private sector, because the state, especially government agencies, have their own accounting standards.

Public sector accounting is as an accounting of public funds, which can then be interpreted as accounting technical techniques and analysis applied to the management of public funds in high institutions of the state and its subordinate departments, regional governments, BUMN, BUMD, NGOs, and social foundations, as well as on private public sector cooperation projects.
The above understanding will influence the various analyzes that will be presented in this book. However, the current conditions will be reviewed from various perceptions that exist in the academic community.

Development of Public Sector Accounting
In the last few years, Indonesian people have experienced a substantial and substantial change, which is marked by an increased desire for accountability and transparency in performance in the management of the public sector. The term reform is a spark to re-establish a balance between physical development and value development. So that the reforms emphasize the development of values expressed in goog governance.
The expression of clean government can be interpreted as an embodiment of government honesty indicators. In the past, government honesty was more interpreted as government stability. Whereas in the reform period, honesty is defined as a clean government. Thus, the manipulation mechanism practiced in the past must be replaced by a transparency mechanism.

Discussing the marketing strategies for coffee

Discussing the marketing strategies for coffee
As the fourth largest coffee producing country in the world, it should not be inferior to coffee importing countries. That way, we should have no trouble getting the best coffee beans. This is your opportunity to increase trends in coffee consumption through the right marketing strategy. World coffee consumption is indeed increasing to 1.3 kg per capita per year. But the amount is still lower than the United States, whose consumption reaches 4.3 kg per capita, Austria 7.6 kg per capita and Belgium 8.0 kg per capita (Information from Coffee marketing performance and analysis).

Your coffee shop business will succeed in making a big turnover if you implement the following marketing strategies:
Prioritizing product quality. Although the price of coffee is relatively more expensive than similar products, but if the taste and aroma of coffee can satisfy consumers. This will be an advantage of your coffee shop.
Positioning itself as a third home. From the start, create your coffee shop as a "third home" for all those who travel from home and work. So a coffee shop is not just a place to buy a cup of coffee, but a place to gather to socialize and discuss, especially for students and young professionals. This unique and soothing experience and atmosphere is a very powerful concept, so consumers feel very interested in your Coffee Shop.

Customer satisfaction. From the entrance to the coffee shop to the last coffee drop, consumers should be able to feel the uniqueness of the coffee tasting experience at your Kopi Kopi Shop.
Innovation. Create creative and innovative ideas in adding product or service choices. They added different flavors to their coffee, added food menus, and also became one of the first to provide internet facilities in their stores.
Location Selection. In choosing a location, select it in certain areas so as to make it very easy to find on city streets. Whereas the traditional marketing strategy mindset opposes the placement of adjacent stores because it can cut sales from existing outlets.
Existence on Social Media. Two ways to strengthen existence on social media, namely by increasing engagement on social media and advertising. Post daily on all social media accounts and continue the promotion by expanding coffee quizzes or other giveaway routines.

Launch promos for specific moments or days. Don't hesitate launching discount promos. For example, your target market is office workers, so offer a 25% discount on coffee and snacks at 18.30-21.00. That way, your customers are interested in coming to your coffee shop. This strategy is more appropriate for newly launched coffee shops, but does not need to be faithful today only at certain moments.
Make a website. A brand that has a website will strengthen your coffee shop's brand awareness in the community. Create attractive designs and content, also enliven your website with photos of food and beverage menus that are served, as well as price information. Don't forget to load educational articles about coffee and culinary.

After discussing the marketing strategies above, you will think that marketing requires funds. Even though your Coffee Shop has just been opened and funds have been used up for rent, employee salaries and so on.
Therefore, Coffeeland is here to provide all the needs of the Coffee Shop / Coffee Shop. We will be your partner, so we only need to provide the location and initial installation package worth 150 million rupiah. These costs will be used to purchase equipment, purchase raw materials, employee training costs, and assist the marketing process. You are welcome to use your own brand and not be burdened by any royalty fees.
Coffeeland has had many successful Kedai Kopi partners in various regions such as in the world. One of our partners even has a turnover of 5 million per day.

Building customer participation can be important in marketing strategy. If customers feel involved in your brand, then they are likely to be trustworthy and loyal.
But there are many things to build the right marketing strategy, and are superior to those of competitors.
Every day there are new ideas from marketers in promoting their products. If this marketing strategy is correct, then the message in it will be able to get to customers well, namely to attract customers to want to buy and be loyal to their products.

Here are eight important things to create an outstanding marketing and promotion strategy:
1. Focus on solutions
This is what customers are really looking for.
If your product is proven to be the solution to a big problem, half of your marketing work has been successful.
Products and services that have high demand will get first and more frequent attention.
Give your target market what they want or what they are interested in seeing. Offer something that sounds like "I'm a problem solver" or "I'm a quick solution," and your message will get attention.

2. Aim at the target market
Marketing that does not reach the target will be classified as wasteful, inefficient or junk (as in "junk mail").
Marketing activities that reach their target markets are attractive, effective and very efficient. The key is to give your target market something of interest to them.
If you are a middle-aged citizen interested in classical music, a brief story about the latest music releases from the latest rock-and-roll band will not be interesting - so the citizen is not part of your target market.

Stages of penetration testing in a virtual environment

Stages of penetration testing in a virtual environment
This research shows if the stages of penetration testing can be done in a virtual environment. Based on the results of testing the level of performance shows the comparison of the response rate of the two servers is quite significant, while for physical server throughput 10 times faster than a virtual server. Vulnerability and penetration testing in virtualized environment, this research aims to develop a virtualization based laboratory for penetration test simulation and compare the performance level between physical servers and virtual servers.

Type Development of a virtual laboratory using the Vmware Wokstation hypervisor. Penetration simulation testing uses the Information System Security Assessment Framework (ISSAF) guidelines while the tools used for penetration simulation testing use the tools provided on Kali Linux. Comparison of CPU increase on both servers is also quite significant inversely with Comparison of memory usage on virtual servers 2 times greater than physical servers.

Director of Marketing and Product Development Harianto Widodo said this collaboration was a concrete manifestation of the company in improving business performance and making Pegadaian the number one pawn company in the world.
"The cooperation that we are doing aims to develop each other's potential and resources through collaboration to jointly move forward so as to achieve positive performance," Harianto said in an official statement, Saturday 11 January 2020.
Harianto added that the collaboration this time was carried out with two main sectors, namely agencies / institutions such as local governments and universities, as well as companies and associations.

For universities, the scope of cooperation covers the fields of education, research and development, and community service. In addition, the use and development of resources, the provision of data and information exchanges and publications, public lectures, internships, campus hiring and other fields developed by the two parties going forward.
Meanwhile, cooperation with the private sector Pegadaian includes the development of products and services, cooperation with affiliated companies or subsidiaries of each party. The cooperation also includes the dissemination and sale of Pawnshop products and services to employees to related parties, and the development of a joint network for superior products and services.
"With this partnership, I hope that all parties get a large profit to achieve positive business growth. Cooperation like this can also improve business networks, so not only is one-way Pegadaian with partners, but also other partners can establish mutual business cooperation

The development, which is a priority program for the village, is carried out to meet the needs of the community and for the realization of safe and comfortable transportation facilities. It is expected that with the completion of the road that can be passed by 2 and 4 wheeled vehicles, it can expedite community activities in transporting various needs, including agricultural products.
Head of Sidamulya village, Sukendi, accompanied by Head of Ekbang, Maman Rukmana, explained that roads are important needs of the community and have links to various sectors of life. For this reason, he continues to strive so that all roads, both the village axis and the environment including the alley, in addition to being safe and comfortable to pass, must also be in good condition.
"Other facilities can be obtained, when the road as a liaison has been fulfilled. The road can also be used as a barometer as a success for physical development, it is no longer a secret that a wide and good road will be able to raise the selling price of the land around it. We also think that way and the people support, "said Sukendi.

Sukendi said, in the future maintenance and utilization should be maximized, especially if there is water that overflows and stagnates on the road to be drained immediately, because standing water will cause the road to quickly damage, in addition to eroding the surrounding soil.
"All infrastructure in Sidamulya Village is shared property, for the common good. Maintaining and maintaining it must also be together, not to rely on one another. Hopefully all the facilities and infrastructure are able to improve shared prosperity,

Balanced Fertilization of Shallot Plants

Balanced Fertilization of Shallot Plants
Shallot is a plant that requires a lot of nutrients, both during vegetative growth or also during the formation, enlargement and maturation of tubers.
Fertilization must be done the right type, right time, right way and right combination.
Effect of nitrogen and potassium sulphate of onion, Proper fertilization is also an important way to increase plant resistance to pests and disease-causing pathogens in shallot plants.
Shallot plants absorb many macro nutrients from the soil such as Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P) and Potassium (K). However, these elements are not always available in the soil due to a continuous cultivation system.
In onion cultivation, fertilization is required three times. Namely at the time of land management and plant maintenance.

The first fertilization is given together during tillage or before planting the shallot seedlings. Fertilizers are spread over the beds and then evenly mixed with the soil.
The types of fertilizers used are NPK Mutiara (16:16:16) 500 kg, SP 36 as many as 50-100 kg and KCl 30-60 kg for the application dose per hectare. For this first fertilization if you are going to add compost or manure, the NPK Mutiara dosage (16:16:16) can be reduced to 250 kg / ha.
The reason for using this fertilizer is because the P and K elements are difficult to dissolve so it takes time (at least 14 days) for the element to be absorbed by plants.
At the age of 7 days onion roots begin to grow and need these elements for their development. The P and K elements of NPK, SP 36 and KCl will be available to plants throughout the growth of shallots.

First Supplementary Fertilization
Furthermore, fertilizing the first aftershocks are given when the plants are 10-15 hst with a type of Urea fertilizer 180 kg / ha or ZA 400 kg / ha.
Fertilizer application can be spread over beds.
Fertilization aims to provide food reserves for tubers because at the age of 15-30 HST fast food reserves depleted so that the necessary elements N and S for the formation of leaves, stems and roots.

Second Supplementary Fertilizer
The second supplement fertilizer is given when the plant is 30-35 HST with the type of Urea fertilizer 180 kg / ha. At this age the plant enters the tuber formation phase, thus requiring photosynthetic carbohydrates as tuber formation material.
The N element of Urea is used in the process of photosynthesis for the formation of carbohydrates.
Supplementary fertilizer should be followed by watering if rain is not expected. In addition, biological fertilizers can also be given as prescribed if available so as to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers.
Keep in mind, fertilizing shallots in each region is not the same depending on the level of soil fertility.

First Fertilization or Basic Fertilization
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Dose on Nutrient N Absorption, Growth and Yield in Several Shallot Varieties (Allium ascalonicum L.) This study aims to determine the Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Dose on N Nutrient Uptake, Growth and Yield in Several Shallot Varieties Allium ascalonicum L.). The study was conducted in the World. When the research was conducted in April to June 2019. The experimental method used was to use an experimental method with factorial randomized block design (RBD), the treatment consisted of two factors that were repeated three times. The first factor is the onion variety consisting of three varieties, while the second factor is the dose of nitrogen fertilizer consisting of four levels. The results showed an interaction between onion varieties and nitrogen fertilizer on average N uptake, number of leaves of 6 MST, and dry tuber weight per plot. A dose of 80 kg N / ha or equivalent to 206 kg fertilizer / ha (Urea 154.50 + ZA 51.50 kg / ha) and the Katumi variety gives the best effect on dry tuber weight per plot by producing 4.58 kg / plot or equivalent with 9.16 tons / ha.

Tips for Overcoming Myasis in Cows

Tips for Overcoming Myasis in Cows
The existence of larvae / maggots in body tissues both animals and humans in medical terms is called myasis. The process of this case was preceded by a wound left open. Prevalence of wound myiasis, Injuries can be caused by the friction of the body of a cow with a cage, slashed by sharp objects, or hit by a tick. The smell of fresh blood on the wound will then attract the attention of female Chrysomya bezziana flies to lay eggs on the wound. This egg has a strong adhesion so it is not easy to fall to the ground by the movement of cows. Within 12-24 hours, the fly's eggs will hatch and grow into larvae, then move into the tissue.

Myasis larval infestation does not cause specific clinical symptoms and varies greatly depending on the location of the wound. Cattle with myasis will feel uncomfortable, decreased appetite, weakness, and fever so that they experience a decrease in body weight and milk production, tissue damage, and anemia. This indirectly also has an impact on the decline in selling prices of cattle on the market.
Based on the information that you have conveyed, there is a strong suspicion that the wound caused by lice. Therefore, it is necessary to give lice medicines for a thorough treatment. Products that can be used include: Kututox or Kututox-S as a sow medicine. Or give Kututox Oral by mixing it in drinking water. Other drug options that can be used are Wormectin Injection or Wormectin Plus by injecting under the skin (subcutaneously). To deal with cows that have already gone through myasis, farmers can take the following actions:
Remove the larvae / maggots on the surface by using tweezers.
Spray myasis wounds using Dicodine.

If the condition of myasis has been accompanied by pus, it means that there has been a secondary infection by bacteria, parasites or other microorganisms. Therefore, after the wound is cleaned and sprayed with Dicodine, the farmer needs to give antibiotics such as Medoxy-LA or systemic antiparasites such as Wormectin Injection in cattle affected by myasis so that the condition is not getting worse.

To control cases of myasis that often occur, the steps that must be applied include:
Controlling the population of flies in a cage To control the presence of flies in a cage, farmers should clean up cow dung every day and collect it in separate and closed shelters. If many adult flies are roaming in cages, breeders can get rid of them with insecticides such as Flytox and Delatrin. Flytox is an insecticide preparation that is effective in controlling flies in the area of livestock without causing resistance, working fast, and its working power is durable. Likewise with Delatrin which has a knock down effect (killing flies instantly).

Flytox is applied by sowing, while Delatrin is applied by spray.
Early treatment of wounds In principle, myasis will not appear if the farmer conducts early treatment of wounds suffered by cows. However, if the wound is not treated within 1-2 weeks, in addition to myasis, secondary bacterial infection will also occur so that death can occur. To treat wounds, breeders can spray Dicodine. Dicodine is a spray that is specifically formulated to accelerate wound healing and prevent myasis. Before treatment, clean the wound first using warm water or infusion solution (NaCl 0.9%).